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Association of Asthma Severity and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness With a Polymorphism: Materials and Methods

Polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene, located on chromosome 2q33, could thus have effects on immune response. The following three CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms are known: a microsatellite (AT)n marker at position 642 of the 3′-untranslated region of exon 4; a single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 1 (adenine or guanine at position +49); and another single-nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region (cytosine or thymine at position —318). The A/G dimorphism at exon 1 position +49 results in an amino acid exchange (threonine to alanine) in the leader sequence.
To evaluate the possible role of CTLA-4 polymorphisms in bronchial asthma, we investigated the association between two polymorphisms (exon 1 +49 A/G, promoter —318 C/T) and atopy, asthma severity, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, in bronchial asthma patients and a healthy control group.
Subjects
Eighty-eight consecutive patients with asthma (35 male and 53 female patients), whose ages ranged from 16 to 67 years (mean, 44.2 years), were prospectively studied Reading here tadanafil. The subjects were considered asthmatic if they had a prior clinical history of asthma (as defined by the American Thoracic Society) for > 1 year and had, within the year preceding the study, a history of at least one of the following: (1) a > 12% reversibility of FEV1 in response to a bronchodilator; (2) a result of a challenge with a provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) of < 8 mg/mL; or (3) a > 20% maximum within-day amplitude from twice the daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement over a 2-week period. All patients were nonsmokers or exsmokers (for > 12 months, with < 5 pack-years).
Eighty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 67 women), whose ages ranged from 22 to 68 years (mean, 46.0 years), were recruited from the employee pool of the Korea University Hospital and graduate students at the College of Medicine, Korea University, and served as control subjects.