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Children With Asthma: Results Characteristics of Sample

Children With Asthma: Results Characteristics of SampleDemographic Characteristics: The sample consisted of approximately equal numbers of male and female children (Table 1). Approximately 44% of the sample was Hispanic and 38% was black. One third of the primary caregivers (28 of 87 caregivers) had not graduated from high school, and only 3 caregivers were college graduates. None of these demographic characteristics differed significantly between the intervention and control groups.
Smoking Practices: The primary maternal caregiver (who was not always the child’s natural mother) was a smoker in 61% of intervention group families and in 42% of control families (p = 0.07). An average of 27 cigarettes (1.35 packs) was smoked per day by all residents and frequent visitors in the homes, Smoking was allowed inside the homes of 34% of intervention group children and 42% of control children (p = 0.46). Where smoking was not allowed, the exposure was reported to occur in other homes where the child spent substantial amounts of time (eg, those of the child’s father, grandparents, or childcare provider). ETS exposure was assessed by the urine CCR, after natural log transformation. At baseline, the log of the child’s urine cotinine level (Table 2) was significantly predicted by whether the child’s maternal caregiver was a smoker (p = 0.006), whether smoking was allowed in the home (p = 0.0005), how much tobacco smoke the caregiver reported that the child was exposed to on a typical day (p = 0.01), and by the total number of cigarettes smoked per day by persons living in or frequently visiting the child’s home (p = 0.003). These relationships also were observed when the cotinine level was corrected for excretion (ie, when predicting the log CCR). When these four variables were entered together into a multivariate regression for predicting the log urine cotinine level, the first three variables were retained, together accounting for only 38% of the variance in the log cotinine level (p < 0.0001). buy avandia

Table 1—Baseline Characteristics of Intervention and Control Group Participants

Characteristics Intervention (n = 44) Control (n = 43) p Value
Age, yr* 7.2 (2.5) 7.5 (2.7) 0.62
Sext
Male 25 (56.8) 19 (44.2) 0.24
Female 19 (43.2) 24 (55.8)
Racet
White 16 (36.4) 15 (34.9) 0.22
Black 14 (31.8) 19 (44.2)
Asian-Pacific, Native American, Other 8(18.2) 2 (4.7)
Hispanic (not elsewhere classified)! 6 (13.6) 7 (16.3)
Ethnicityt
Hispanic 19 (43.2) 19 (44.2) 0.92
Non-Hispanic 25 (56.8) 24 (55.8)
Education level (primary caregiver) t
Less than 12th grade 13 (30.0) 15 (34.9) 0.69
High school graduate 10 (22.7) 6 (14.0)
Some college/trade school 20 (45.5) 20 (46.5)
4-yr college graduate or higher 1 (2.3) 2 (4.7)
> 1 acute asthma visit t§ 22 (50.0) 16 (37.2) 0.23
Maternal caregiver smokest 27 (61.4) 18 (41.9) 0.07
Smoking allowed inside the homet 15 (34.1) 18 (41.9) 0.46
Smokers in home, 11| No. 2.32 (0.96) 2.09 (0.95) 0.27
Cigarettes smoked per day,§ No. 27 (18.2) 27 (18.5) 0.88

Table 2—Intervention and Control Group Means and Proportions on Primary and Secondary Outcome Variables, Including Group Differences and ORs at 12-Month Follow-up, With and Without Adjustment for Baseline Differences

Measure Intervention Control Intervention Effect
lNo. Baseline lFollow-up 1No. Baseline lFollow-up lUnadjusted Adjusted
Diff OR 1 1p Value Diff OR p Value
Primary outcomes > 1 acute medical visit/year All participants 44 50.0 29.6 43 37.2 46.5 0.48 0.11f 0.32 0.03ft
Those with 12-mo 25 52.0 36.0 26 50.0 73.1 0.21 0.01f 0.16 0.01f§
cotinine dataCCR, ng/mg| 25 1.82(1.05) 1.27 (1.31) 26 2.34 (1.11) 1.93 (1.24) -0.66 0.071 -0.38 0.261
Secondary outcomes Any hospitalization 44 27.3 6.8 43 23.3 16.3 0.38 0.18 0.34 0.14#
in year Smoking allowed in 30 27.7 10.0 30 40.0 30.0 0.26 0.06 0.24 0.11**
home Activity limitations 30 56.7 40.0 29 62.1 50.0 0.67 0.44 0.64 0.39
(any reported)!! Cigarettes smoked 28 2.76(0.99) 2.52(1.10) 29 2.98 (1.26) 2.57 (0.99) -0.05 0.86 0.09 0.67
per day||fftt Symptom-free days 29 5.41 (5.32) 7.66 (5.43) 29 5.86 (5.99) 7.93 (6.17) -0.27 0.86 – 0.22 0.88
per 2 wkff Nights awakened per 29 3.00 (3.91) 3.07 (3.99) 27 4.89 (5.42) 4.15 (5.45) -1.08 0.40 -0.37 0.76
2 wkff FEV1, % predicted 18 80.28 (21.56) 84.00 (21.78) 21 74.10 (18.84) 79.48 (21.17) 4.52 0.52 -0.41 0.93