The directed differentiation of ES cells toward neural lineages has been studied in rodents, and several differentiation paradigms have emerged. For instance, ES cell aggregates cultured in medium containing retinoic acid undergo neuronal differentiation, and serum-free sequential culture with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been used to isolate and enrich nestin-immunoreactive neural progenitors and neurons. Neuronal differentiation of monkey ES cells, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-pos-itive phenotypes, has also been reported by coculturing monkey ES cells with bone marrow stromal cells. Recently, serum-free culture conditions have been adapted to the production of a highly enriched neural population of hES cells. buy effexor cheap
In the present study, we investigated the differentiation potential of monkey ES cells into EBs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and putative neural cells. We demonstrate that 1) monkey ES cells spontaneously give rise to cells of all three germ layers and neural lineages within EBs; 2) enriched populations of proliferating neural progenitors can be obtained via a combination of mechanical isolation, serum-free culture, and cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2; 3) cryopreservation of monkey ES cell-derived NPCs is possible, with recovery of a high yield of viable NPCs; and 4) fresh or frozen ES cell-derived NPCs can be induced to differentiate into putative neurons and glial cells in vitro.