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Increased Apoptosis Occurring During the First Wave of Spermatogenesis: INTRODUCTION(2)

Similar phenotypes have been observed in transgenic mice overexpressing Bcl-2 or Bcl-x, two an-tiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Thus, genetically induced alterations of the balance between apo-ptosis-protecting and apoptosis-inducing proteins in the testis are sufficient to disturb the normal development of functional spermatogenesis. ordering antibiotics online

The present investigation was designed to identify the cell types that are eliminated by apoptosis in the immature rat testis and to determine whether this apoptosis is associated with any particular stage of spermatogenesis. Type A and B spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids undergoing apoptosis exhibit a characteristic morphology that can be easily identified employing a phase-contrast microscope. Therefore, supravital squash preparations were used to identify both the cell types undergoing apoptosis and the developmental phase of the germ cells present in sequential segments of the seminiferous tubules in rats at 8, 18, and 26 days of age. The findings thus obtained were confirmed by electron microscopy, TUNEL staining, and quantitation of the levels of activated caspase 3 and cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) proteins. In addition, the levels of expression and localization (determined immunohistochemically) of the Bcl-2 proteins Bax, Bad, and Bcl-2 were compared to morphological findings.