Ninety percent of these cases were mild in degree. None of the cases were very severe.
The prevalence rates of airway obstruction within subgroups for each variable are shown in Table 3. The prevalence of airway obstruction was significantly higher in men (17%) than in women (5.6%; p < 0.001). Eighteen percent of subjects aged > 45 years had airway obstruction, whereas the prevalence for individuals < 45 years of age was only 3.8% (p < 0.001). The prevalences of airway obstruction for men aged 18 to 44 years and > 45 years were 6.5% and 26.7%, respectively (Table 2, Fig 1). The rates for women in the same age groups were 2.3% and 10.3%, respectively. Figure 2 shows the prevalence of airway obstruction by age and smoking status in men alone. A markedly higher prevalence of airway obstruction was seen in current smokers (20.0%) vs never-smokers (10.8%). The prevalence in former smokers (17.6%) was also higher than that in never-smokers and was modestly lower than that in current smokers. Among subjects who had smoked for a 20 pack-years, > 30% had airway obstruction (Table 3).
Among the other risk factors in Table 3, the odds of airway obstruction increased with increasing alcohol intake and BMI. Associations with BMI were not significant, however, and the effects of alcohol on airway obstruction are largely explained by increases in smoking frequency with increasing amounts of alcohol intake. The associations between airway obstruction and education and income are less clear. canadian family pharmacy online
The rates of airway obstruction were similar for those with a high school and college education, while the odds of airway obstruction was doubled in those with a middle-school education or less. The associations between airway obstruction and income seemed more U-shaped. An excess in airway obstruction was observed in the lowest and highest income brackets vs those with moderate incomes (income range, $851 to $2,500 [US] per month).
Figure 1. Prevalence (ATS criteria) of airway obstruction by age and gender.
Figure 2. Prevalence (ATS criteria) of airway obstruction by age and smoking status in men. The overall rates of obstruction were 20.0% in current smokers, 17.6% in former smokers, and 10.8% in never smokers.
Table 3—Prevalence and Crude ORs of Airway Obstruction According to Risk Factor Strata
|Variables||No.||Prevalence by ATS, %||CrudeOR||95% CI||p Value*|
|Women||677||5.6||1t||< 0.001 §|
|Middle school or lower High school||377528||15.77.4||2.3|1t||1.5-3.6||0.143|
|College or higher||250||8.8||1.2||0.7-2.1|
|Income (US dollars/month)|
|< $850 $851-1,700||287532||16.49.2||1.9|1t||1.3-3.0||0.445|
|Alcohol intake, drinks/wk|