Previous studies have shown that LAA% and sCLA correlated well with FEV1 percentage predicted and FEV1/FVC. In HRCT examinations, patients with Gc*1F allele had a higher LAA%, lower mean CT score, and larger sCLA than patients without the allele, whereas no difference was observed in the baseline FEV1 percentage predicted. This result may suggest that patients with the Gc*1F allele tend to acquire a more severe emphysema than patients without the Gc*1F allele. There have been few attempts to define a correlation between genetic factors and emphysematous changes in HRCT. HRCT is less frequently used in clinical practice for the management of COPD than pulmonary function tests. We suppose the reason may be due to its higher cost and lack of feasibility of setting up the equipment. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether Gc-globulin polymorphism contributes to an early development of pathologic emphysematous lesions that are difficult to detect by pulmonary function tests. http://cheap-asthma-inhalers.com/
Gc-globulin has two different biological functions related to inflammation. This protein enhances the chemotactic activity of C5a and C5a des-Arg for neutrophils. However, there were no differences between the three Gc-globulin isoforms in terms of their potency to induce neutrophil chemotaxis. Another function is to undergo conversion to a potent MAF by the removal of specific glycosylated moieties from the protein. The Gc-2 protein has no glycosylated Lys at residue 420 and is unable to be converted to MAF. This raises the possibility that in homozygous Gc*2 individuals, cigarette smoking may cause less pulmonary inflammation because of reduced MAF activity. We could not replicate the protective effect of Gc*2 allele shown by Horne et al, presumably because there is a relatively small frequency of Gc*2 allele in this patient cohort.