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Spectroscopic approach to capillary-alveolar membrane damage induced acute lung injury (1)

Lung injury

The term acute lung injury (ALI) is applied to acute abnormalities of pulmonary function. This condition results from diffuse alveolar damage leading to noncardio-genic pulmonary edema, and is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular permeability because of the breakdown of capillary endothelial and epithelial membrane barriers. Pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and decreased gas exchange function across the alveolar membrane are common clinical features related to this syndrome. The commonly known acute (or adult) respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the severe form of ALI. Despite advances in medical therapy, there is still a high mortality rate due to ARDS, in excess of 50%, in the critical care population. ALI/ARDS diagnosis is largely dependent on the patient’s pulmonary function, and is assessed by a lung injury scoring (LIS) system proposed by Murray et al . The system includes four parameters: chest x-ray evaluation, hypoxemia score, the respiratory system compliance score, and the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure score. Although the scoring system performs adequately in clinical terms, it provides no direct measure of pulmonary vascular permeability, which is the pathognomonic feature of ALI/ARDS. buy asthma inhaler

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