Patients and protocol: Bronchial washing samples were obtained from 67 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba from July 1995 to April 1996. The patients enrolled in this study were scored according to the LIS. All patients were intubated, put on positive pressure ventilation and received the HES PENTASPAN. The amount of PENTAS-PAN patients received varied from 150 to 2000 mL. The patient population was divided into two groups: a risk group and an injury group. ventolin inhalers
There were 12 cases in the risk group selected from patients with normal values of hypoxemia score (Partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen [PaO2/FiO2] greater than 300 mmHg). Based on the clinical impression of the attending physician, they were potentially at risk to develop ALI. The injury group encompassed 55 patients and included ALI as well as ARDS patients. For a case to be diagnosed as ARDS, most, but not all, of the following criteria had to be met within five days of admission to the intensive care unit: hypoxemia score PaO2/FiO2 less than 200 mmHg with an LIS greater than 2.5; patients with PaO2/FiO2 over 200 mmHg but with an LIS of less than 2.5 were also considered as ARDS by clinical decision; bilateral infiltrates seen on anteroposterior chest radiographs; no clinical evidence of increased capillary wedge pressures and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure less than or equal to 18 mmHg (to exclude patients with hydrostatic edema); and underlying disease compatible with ARDS.