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Systemic Inflammatory Effects During the Acute Phase of Experimental Pleurodesis in Rabbits: Pleural Fluid

Systemic Inflammatory Effects During the Acute Phase of Experimental Pleurodesis in Rabbits: Pleural FluidLDH: The intrapleural injection of SN, but not TL or saline solution, led to a short-term increase in serum LDH levels. The mean serum LDH level was significantly higher 6 h after the injection of SN (540 ± 215 IU/L) than after the injection of TL (300 ± 91 IU/L) or saline solution (238 ± 150 IU/L), or compared to the levels in the controls (217 ± 84 IU/L). The increase in the serum LDH level following SN injection had disappeared by 24 and 48 h (Fig 3).
IL-8: The intrapleural injection of all three agents led to an increase in serum IL-8 levels. The serum IL-8 levels tended to increase with time in all groups. The serum levels of IL-8 after the intrapleural injection of SN were significantly higher than those after the intrapleural injection of saline solution at all three time periods, and those after the intrapleural injection of TL at 6 and 24 h (Fig 4). life without allergy com
VEGF: The intrapleural injection of both TL and SN led to significant increases in the serum levels of VEGF. Serum VEGF was undetectable (< 15 pg/ mL) in the serum samples of controls and of animals injected with saline solution. The mean serum levels of VEGF in the TL and SN groups were significantly greater than those in the control group or those in the animals injected with saline solution. There was no statistical difference between the mean levels of VEGF in the TL and SN groups (Fig 5).
Leukocytes: The pleural fluid WBC count was higher in the SN group than in the TL group, and the difference was statistically significant at 48 h (Table 1).
Neutrophils: The predominant pleural fluid cells at all time points in both the TL and SN groups were neutrophils. The percentage of neutrophils decreased significantly with time in only the TL group (Table 1).
LDH: After the intrapleural injection of TL, the highest pleural fluid LDH level was at 6 h, and there was a significant decrease by 48 h. In contrast, after the intrapleural injection of SN, the highest pleural fluid LDH level was at 48 h, and, indeed, the pleural fluid LDH level at that time point was significantly higher than that at 6 or 24 h in the SN group, or at any time point in the TL group (Table 1).
Fig3
Figure 3. Serum LDH levels in controls, and in rabbits injected with saline solution, TL, and SN. * = p < 0.05 (SN group at 6 h vs controls, and animals injected with saline solution and TL at 6 h, and those injected with SN at 24 and 48 h).
Fig4
Figure 4. Serum IL-8 levels in controls, and in rabbits injected with saline solution, TL, and SN. * = p < 0.05 (controls vs all other measurements); # = p < 0.05 (rabbits injected with saline solution at 24 and 48 h vs those injected at 6 h); x = p < 0.05 (TL group at 48 h vs TL group at 6 and 24 h); + = p < 0.05 (SN group at 6 h vs TL group 6 h).
Fig5
Figure 5. Serum VEGF levels in controls, and in rabbits injected with saline solution, TL, and SN. * = p < 0.05 (all TL group and all SN group vs controls and all saline solution group; there was no difference between the TL and SN groups).

Table 1—Pleural Fluid WBC Counts, Neutrophil Percentages, LDH Levels, and Pleural Fluid Volume in Rabbits Injected With TL and SN

Time WBC Count, cells X 103 Neutrophils, % LDH, IU/L PF Volume, mL
TL SN TL SN TL SN 1

TL

SN
6h 25.3 ± 9.7 41.3 ± 22.2 72 ± 11 72 ± 12 2,490 ± 950i 1400 ± 880 3.1 ±1.1 6.4 ± 2.3
24 h 21.5 ± 10.7 29.3 ± 8.7 66 ±20 77 ± 14 2,150 ± 515 i 2470 ± 930  1.8 ± 1.3f 16.5 ± 7.8
48 h 10.3 ± 2.5# 32.8 ± 11.9 45 ± 22**ii 71 ± 8 670 ± 245 5,970 ± 2,710 7.7 ± 4.4 17.8 ± 9.1