Advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment have greatly enhanced the life expectancy of premenopausal women who suffer from malignant diseases. As a result of the increase in long-term survival, posttreatment quality of life is becoming an urgent issue. Side effects of cytotoxic anticancer treatments frequently include ovarian damage due to the susceptibility of the ovaries to ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. These anticancer treatments can damage both the reproductive and the endocrine functions of the ovaries. It has been reported that 34% of cancer patients who received conventional chemotherapy suffered from ovarian failure. Ovarian failure was also observed in 92% of the patients who received radio/chemotherapy required before bone marrow transplantation. canadian health and care mall
Among the possibilities to preserve fertility of patients at risk of premature ovarian failure are cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, or ovarian tissue. Efficient embryo or oocyte cryopreservation techniques require hormone stimulation to increase the number of oocytes. Such stimulation delays initiation of the anticancer therapy and might directly induce progression of hormone-dependent tumors. Embryo cryopreservation provides superior viability relative to oocyte cryopreservation; however, it is only appropriate for patients who have a partner or are willing to accept donor sperm for fertilization. In cryopreservation of both embryos and oocytes, the number of oocytes that can be retrieved is relatively low.